ABC model of critical thinking in teaching maths.

- Umesh Kumar Mishra
Critical thinking is a professional development program for educators. Critical thinking means correct thinking refers to make reason based judgement. It is a research based instructional method to help students think reflectivly, take ownership of their personal learning, understand the logic of arguments, listen attentively, debate confidently and become independent life long learner. The most successful classrooms are those that encourages studets to think for themselves and engage in critical thinking (Halpenn 1996;  Kurland 1995; Unarau 1997). So it is important and useful for students. It develops writing, listing, speaking and thinking skills. Accroding to paul (1989), thinking critically is a combination of both affective and cognitive skills. It is the use of those cognitive skills or Strategies that increase the probability of a desirable  outcome. The most successful classrooms are those that encourge students to think critically. 
Strategies of CT and Learning
For teaching and learning there are many strategies that have been used in critical thinking. However we need to select appropriate strategies of instruction according to the subject, content and topic of instruction. In fact, the determining factors in selecting the strateges are number of students, their level of knowledge, individual  difference, georgrphy of classroom. This approach opines that teaching is more than a set of methods or strategies. It focuses on developing student's skill and strategies of learning. At the same time, they learn the content of the curriculum. However, it suggests a number of methods and strategies useful to develop critical thinking ability in the students. 
The Strategies are
# Think/pair/share (T/P/S) 
# Know/ want to know/Learn (K-W-L)
# what/so whats/ now what, mix/ freeze/ pair: Quick-write,
# Pens in the middle. 
# Value line. 
# Directed Reaching activity (DRA)
# Sig-Saw 
# One stay/ Others Stray 
# Walk ground/Talk around.
# Reciprocal teaching # Save the last word for me.
ABC model of critical thinking (CT)
CT specifies classroom teaching in three phases. These phases are abbereviated as termed ABC: Anticipation, Building  knowledge and consolidation. 
Each lesson begins with a phase of anticipation in which students are directed to think and ask questions about the topic they are about to study. The anticipation phase serves to recall up the knowledge that students already have. It informally assesses what they already know including missconceptions, It also helps to set purposes of learning, focus attention on the topic and provides a context for understanding new ideas.
In this phase teaching leads students to inquire find out, make sense of the material, answer their prior questions and find new questions and answer them. This phase serves to compare expectation with what is being learned, revise expectations or raise  new ones, identify the main points, monitor personal thinking, make inferences about the material, make personal connections to the lession, question the lession.
Once  students come to understand the Ideas of the lession towards end of the lession, there is still more to be done. Teachers want student to reflect on what they learnt and ask what it means to them, reflet on how it changes what they thought, and ponder how they can use it. This phase serves to summarize the main ideas, interpret the ideas, share opinions, make personal responses, test out the ideas, and assess learning. They also become motiveted to ask additional questions.
The example of models session plan, which is developed and implemented by the trainers based on ABC model of CT methodology for the requirment of assesment of CT in TPD program for video record. The session plan is as follows:


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