Discipline Can be defined as the practice of training especially of the mind and character which aims of producing self-control, obedience, sincerity, honesty. Discipline makes as obey values, we have to obey rules and regulation in all types of activities. Discipline is equally important in every step of our life. In this sense, English language teaching is not an exception, discipline is an inevitable requirement of teaching and learning process. Without displine teacher can't teach and students can't learn. To maintain discipline problems in the classroom, following points should be considered.
The Teacher:
The behavior and the attitude of the teacher is perhaps the single most important factor in a classroom and this can have a major effect on discipline . The causes of indiscipline in the classroom done by the teacher are as follows:-
- Going to the class without preparation: The teacher has to appear with well prepared and knowledge about the subject matter.
- Raising sever voice: One of the great mistakes of many teachers is to try and establish control by rising their voices and shorting. Very often a quiet voice is far more effective.
- Giving boaring class: The class should always  be interesting.
- Unfair/biasness: Teachers should be fair either to the class as a whole or to individuals. Teacher's job is not show preference and prejudices in the classroom. The should try to avoid having favourries on particular individuals.
- Having a regative attitude to learning : teachers should always be sensitive to students' reaction i.e. what is happing in the classroom.
- Breaking the code: It the code for the students is to arrive on time, then the teachers must too. For example; chewing gum should be banned for teachers and homework must be checked on time.
- Punctual: Teacher should be punctual otherwise they themselves fail to get the students in discipline.

A teacher should be consistent, otherwise, they may still have problems because of students. There are, of course a number of reasons why students behave badly and a few of these can be mentioned here in short:-
-time of day: if the class take place just before lunch, student may not pay to much attention as the lunch hour approaches. Early morning classes may cause students to be sleepy; classes after lunch are often full of drowsy students.
-The student's attitude: A lot depends on how the students view the class, the teacher and the subject being learnt. If these things are seen in positive only then the teacher has to move ahead.
-A desire to be noticed: It is generally accepted that adolescence is difficult time and that young adolescents often need to be noticed or have a desire to be recognized in some way. So, intervention desire by them should be understood.

If the institution doesn't have a recognized policy for dealing with discipline problems then it is up to the teachers to press for such a system. Ultimately  a student who causes severe problems has to be handled than by teacher on their own and it is therefore, in the teachers' interest to see that these is a coherent policy.
Teachers, who disagrees with the policy of the institution and about things like the choice of textbook, fore example, should not show this disagreement too openly to the students, but work with the administration to have the decision changed.

The ability to control a group of students when things get out of hands depends to a large extent on the personality of the teacher and some teacher certainly find it easier than others. There are, however, a number of measures that can be taken-
Act immediately: The longer a discipline problem is left uncheck, the more difficult it is to take action. If the code is broken involving anti-social behaviours in the classroom, the teacher should speak to the student either during or immediately after the class.
" Stop the class: Where the indiscipline involves disruptive behavior, the teacher should immediately stop the class so that it can indicate to all the students that something is wrong.
" Reseating : An effective way of controlling a student who is behaving badly is to make the student sit in a different place  immediately. Certainly where  troublesome students are sitting together they should be separate.
" Change the activity:  Particularly where a majority of the class seem to be gradually getting out of control a change of activity will often restore order.
" Using the institution:- when problems become extreme, it will be necessary to use the institution i.e. the school or institute ti solve them. They should consult their coordinators.
Department heads and principals when they need help.

We language teachers should avoid the possibility of either physical assault or humiliation i.e. both are seriously wrong particularly for children and adolescents. Similarly the problem of discipline can be reduced if a code of conduct  is followed which is designed to make learning effective and efficient. It is suggested some action can be taken when the code of conduct is not followed.

From the creation of the earth, Men and women began to live in a group. They started conflict among themselves for their commanding upon others. Just like a horse rider commands over a hoarse. The time rolled on and their lives brought different modes in languages. The time there was symbolic language in communication. Still there was no satisfaction between the speaker and the receiver. Afterwards there developed Arabic scripts and people began to use alhapatical words and languages, too. But there was no easy way to communicate with one another all over the world. As there are many types of spoken language one of them is English. It is recognized and spoken everywhere all over the world. In teaching a language learning is considered a very difficult task.
Teaching is very challenging job. The act of teaching is not only dynamic but it is also an adventurous experience. In the improvement of quality teaching, teachers must be trained in the fieldof education today. A trained teacher can motivate the learners through some incentives and she/he can teach them in away and style s/he capable as well as suitable and efficient human resource and they can adjust in any complex society with their knowledge and learned activities.
The two factors (i) structures (Language building) and (ii) spoken practices are essential grade wise textbooks are prepared having different icons (symbols) and structures. On one hand learners can form many sentences on the given structures and can do practices of speaking English from the very beginning classes. If the process of speaking continued without breakage. Definitely the levels of the structures and the power of speaking automatically extends there after the learners can learn language correctly, accurately as ewll as fluently.
It is the fault of some teachers and their students that the learners aren't capable and efficient in speaking English in govt. school from the primary levels. In regard to the teachers, it is confirmed that either the teacher aren't trained or they aren't devoted to their jobs (teaching). Look at a rickshaw puller, he is full time busy in pulling a rickshaw. But he can correctly and fluently speak to his customers. He doesn't have learnt structures, but he has a lot of practices with his customers. Thus, his language learning is effective and suitable according to need of time .
Therefore, it is utmost for both teachers and learners (Students). Because if teachers are competent, students can learn well. Otherwise the students will get only passing certificate. The learners will not be (able) efficient and perfect in language learning. It is a must for today's life.

Violence means the form of crime. Crime is as old as the mankind in itself but in the recent years it has increased in its dimension and has attained new height. Almost the entire society is directly or indirectly effected by such violence.
Women have been victims of helpless, deprivation, economic independence, victimization range from cases includes even burning alive. Some atrocities, which range from mental and psychological torture to physical assaults often result in killing or sucide. There is a greater new to undertake study and research on women crimes and seasons behind their being involved in criminal activities at present because the place and the last three decades leading to a geater participation in the criminal activities.
Violence against women refers a violation of women's right. Violence is the inflection of physical harm to the bdy or to human property by physical force, using the body or weapons. The ability to marshal physical force often determining factor in social action in domestic relation husband and wife or parents or children. Violence is closely related to the term discrimination. It means women are deprived from utilization of their right and liberty. The term discrimination, against women shall mean any distinction exclusion of restriction made on the basis of sex which has the effect on all purposes, or impairing or nullifying the recognitions enjoyment or exercise by women irrespective of their marital status on a basis of equality of man and women of human rights and fundamental freedoms in the political, social, cultural, civic or any other field. Violence against women is a global epidemic that kills, tortures, and harasses physically, psychologically,  sexually and economically. It is a pervasive and under-recognized human rights violence against women occurs in different forms and degree.
SAATHI, 2001
Factors contributing to violence against women:          
- Economic depending: Women are economically depended on men. This dependency cause them to tolerate the opinion but to meekly follow men.
- Lack of awareness: women have a tendency to perceive the violence as natual behavior that happen everywhere. They have seen their  mothers and sisters suffering from violence.
- Lack of training The women are brought up in such a situation that they have a belive that they are inferior to men.
Around the world at least one women in every three been, coerced in to sex, or otherwise abused in her life time. Nepal is not apart from this situation. In Nepal, in every society, violence against women existed in a number of forms from the historic time. It was believed that women or girls are not subjected to be independent or free.

In the contact of Nepal violence against women are as follow:-
- Domestic violence
- Rape including marital rape and incest.
- Traditional harmful practice of female circumsion
- Trafficking in women and girls.
- Fender based violence
- Wife beating
- Caste related violence
- Polygamy
- Unequal pay for equal work
- Alcoholic related violence.
- Abandonment
- Prostitution and pornography; and
- Dowry deaths, etc.

Situation of violence of women in the context of Nepal
In Nepal, gender specific violence against women accurse across all strata of society. Whether they are in the forms of violence such as sexual violence that include rape, custodial rape, gang rape, incest, public stripping, harassment through language, gesture and touch (eve-teasing), trafficking and forced prostitution or the more covert rorms through verbal and psychological been validated as being very high. Existence of mental and emotional torture was reported by 93 percent of the total respondents (Sample size:1250)  and beating was also identified as the most common form of physical violence against women and girls (82%) in Nepal, followed by rape (30%), and forced prostitution (28%) (Sathi 1997).
While Nepalese society (as well as most of the south Asian)  upholds the 'chartit'  and virginity of a girl the ultimate 'prestige' and 'dignity' of a family. On the other hand, the socialization process encourage girls and women to become victims as in instates in them the values of suffer is 'silence' 'tolerance' and 'non-relation' values of being 'shy' and 'shameful', about voicing victimization, especially sexual exposition further silence a victim into submission (Sathi, 2001) likewise, in general Nepalese society is practical, with pervasive and ingrained gender discrimination  in all aspect of life. Through there are difference in term of ethnic and religious group, women in general lag for behind men in access to resources, basic service like education and health, information and knowledge, opportunism for employment and in political representation. Nation-wide only a quarter of women are literate. "chhaupdi" system is widely practiced in the hilly district of far-western Nepal. In Nepalese society, a strong preference for sons exists. In other words, discrimination against girls starts as soon as they are born. This they are deprived in the field of education health and other sectors. Government has taken both legal and social initiatives to address the existing discriminatory practices; however the progress in this regard is slow mainly because of:
a) Traditional patriarchal attitude
b) Poverty
c) Weak enforcement of legal provisions.

Moreover, women in Nepal work for longer men, have much Lover opportunity for gainfully employment and passes extremely limited poverty right In Nepal, women's participation in decision-making remains quite low launching of admistrative reforms of act 1998 by the government.

Mr. Sanjay Patel
Asst. Lecturer, English
Shree Nrisingh H.S. School (10+2)


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